MOJ Header

Current Issue - March 2017, Volume 11, Issue No. 1

Official Journal of Malaysian Orthopaedic Association and ASEAN Orthopaedic Association

Complications of Open Tibial Fracture Management: Risk Factors and Treatment


  1. Court-Brown CM, McBirnie J. The epidemiology of tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1995; 77: 417-21.
  2. Tornetta P, Bergman M, Watnik N, Berkowitz G, Steuer J. Treatment of grade-IIIb open tibial fractures. A prospective randomized comparison of external fixation and non-reamed locked nailing. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994; 76: 13-9.
  3. Hutchinson AJP, Frampton AE, Bhattacharya R. Operative fixation for complex tibial fractures. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2012; 94:34-8.
  4. Gustilo RB, Anderson JT. Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones: retrospective and prospective analyses. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976; 58: 453-8.
  5. Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN. Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures. J Trauma. 1984; 24: 742-6.
  6. Gustilo RB, Gruninger RP, Davis T. Classification of type III (severe) open fractures relative to treatment and results.Orthopedics. 1987; 10: 1781-8.
  7. Tscherne H, Oestern HJ. A new classification of soft-tissue damage in open and closed fractures. Unfallheilkunde. 1982; 65: 111-5.
  8. Südkamp N, Haas NP, Flory PJ, Tscherne H, Berger A. Criteria for amputation, reconstruction and replantation of extremities in multiple trauma patients. Chirurg. 1989; 60: 774-81.
  9. Südkamp NP. Soft-tissue injury: pathophysiology and its influence on fracture management-evaluation/classification of closed and open injuries. AO principles of fracture management. Stuttgart, etc: Thieme. 2000; 72-5.
  10. Glass GE, Barrett SP, Sanderson F, Pearse MF, Nanchahal J. The microbiological basis for a revised antibiotic regimen in high energy tibial fractures: preventing deep infections by nosocomial organisms. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011; 64(3): 375-80.
  11. Kim P, Leopold SS. Gustilo-Anderson Classification. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012; 470(11): 3270-4.
  12. Choudry U, Moran S, Karacor Z. Soft-Tissue Coverage and Outcome of Gustilo Grade IIIB Midshaft Tibia Fractures: A 15-Year Experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008; 122(2): 479-85.
  13. Gopal, S, Majumder S, Batchelor AG, Knight, SL, De Boer P, Smith RM. Fix and flap: The radical ortho- paedic and plastic treatment of severe open fractures of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000; 82: 959-66.
  14. Tropet, Y, Garbuio, P, Obert, L, Ridoux, PE. Emergency management of type IIIB open tibial fractures. Br J Plast Surg. 1999; 52: 462-70.
  15. Franken JM, Hupkens P, Spauwen PH. The treatment of soft tissue defects of the lower limb after open tibial fractures. Eur J Plast Surg. 2010; 33(3): 129-33.
  16. Karanas YL, Nigriny J, Chang J. The timing of microsurgical reconstruction in lower limb trauma. Microsurgery. 2008; 28(8):632-4.
  17. Tacconelli E, De Angelis G, Cataldo MA, Pozzi E, Cauda R. Does antibiotic exposure increase the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 61(1): 26-38.
  18. Muto CA, Jernigan JA, Ostrowsky BE, Richet HM, Jarvis WR, Boyce JM, et al. SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(5): 362-86.
  19. Hamill ME, Reed CR, Fogel SL, Bradburn EH, Powers KA, Love KM, et al. Contact isolation precautions in trauma patients: An analysis of infectious complications. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2017; doi: 10.1089/sur.2015.094. Epub ahead of print.
  20. Watkins L, Ali S, Clark A, Brown CV. Transmission-based contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms in trauma patients: fewer days in isolation with no increase in hospital-associated infections. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014; 77(6): 960-3.
  21. Hauser CJ, Adams CA Jr, Eachempati SR. Surgical Infection Society guideline: prophylactic antibiotic use in open fractures: an evidence-based guideline. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2006; 7(4): 379-405.

Abstract   |   Reference

MOJ footer

About Us

The Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal is a peer-reviewed journal that is published three times a year in both print and electronic online version. The purpose of this journal is to publish original research studies, evaluation of current practices and case reports in various subspecialties of orthopaedics and traumatology, as well as associated fields like basic science, biomedical engineering, rehabilitation medicine and nursing.

Keep in Touch

creative-commons License