Artelon as a Bio-Scaffold to Augment Collateral Ligament Repair after Knee Dislocation
Introduction: Knee dislocations (KD) have high rates of multi-ligamentous injury (MLI). Collateral ligaments rupture in 50-60% of KDs. Traditionally, collateral ligaments have undergone primary repair, though microscopic healing is not optimal. Artelon is a degradable, polyurethane urea bio- scaffold thought to decrease mechanical forces and promote healing, motion, and strength. Currently, little evidence exists regarding its indications or outcomes.
Materials and methods: Thirty-two patients with KD and MLI undergoing collateral ligament repair at a level-I trauma centre between 2015-2020 were included. Patients age <18, with ipsilateral fractures or inadequate follow-up were excluded. The Artelon (AG) and primary ligamentous repair group (PR) each included 16 patients. Injury and perioperative variables were evaluated using SPSS® .
Results: Thirty-two KDs were included in 32 patients, with 60% anterior. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts demographically or with regards to the type or severity of injury sustained. Meniscal pathology was addressed in 14 patients in both groups. Thirty-eight percent of all patients lacked >15° of knee flexion. Only one gross failure occurred, in the AG. No differences were noted in infection or re-operation. Lysholm Knee Scale and Tegner Activity Scale were not significantly different, although Tegner scores in both cohorts decreased from pre-injury scores.
Conclusion: In summary, Artelon appears to be safe without increasing risk for hypersensitivity or infection when used for collateral ligament augmentation. Additionally, Artelon appeared to be non-inferior and statistically equivalent to primary repair in this setting and may have promise with use in certain types of knee dislocations.
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