A Case Series of Bosworth Fracture-Dislocations and Review of 129 Reported Cases
Introduction: Bosworth fracture dislocations of the ankle are rare injuries of the ankle caused by extreme external rotation of the supinated foot where the proximal fibula fracture fragment is posteriorly dislocated and entrapped behind the posterior-lateral ridge of the tibia. This case series aims to document three such cases treated in our institution over a nine year period. We also provide a review of 129 cases in the existing literature.
Materials and methods: Medical records and relevant radiographs for each patient were analysed and collected from the time of presentation till the point of latest follow- up. During each clinic visit, all physical exam findings as well as all complications were recorded. The American Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score was also tabulated for each patient at the point of latest review.
Results: Closed reduction was unsuccessful in all three patients, and all required open reduction. One patient had an uncomplicated recovery whilst the remaining two suffered significant soft tissue complications. One patient suffered severe soft tissue swelling preventing primary closure at the time of surgery, whilst another suffered post-operative wound dehiscence and infection. Eventually all fractures healed, and all three patients obtained satisfactory AOFAS scores.
Conclusion: The diagnosis of Bosworth fracture dislocations of the ankle is often delayed or missed, due to its rare occurrence. Closed reduction is often unsuccessful, and early open reduction is required to avoid poor clinical outcomes due to severe soft tissue damage or even compartment syndrome.
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