Periprosthetic Fractures after Total Knee Arthroplasty: the Influence of Pre-Operative Mechanical Factors versus Intraoperative Factors
Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures are a devastating complication following total knee arthroplasty. Little is known about the effect of mechanical factors on the incidence of periprosthetic fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between pre-operative mechanical factors, like side of surgery, coronal alignment and pre-operative range of motion and intra-operative factors, and the incidence of a periprosthetic fracture, following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with periprosthetic fractures (PPF) after primary TKA were identified from our hospital arthroplasty registry. These patients were matched two-to-one for gender and age at primary knee arthroplasty to 84 patients without PPF. The incidence of periprosthetic fracture with regards to laterality, coronal alignment and pre-operative range of motion was analysed. Intra-operative factors like implant type, patellar resurfacing and notching were also analysed using logistic regression.
Results: Coronal alignment, pre-operative range of motion and patella resurfacing were not significant predictors of periprosthetic fractures. Anterior femoral notching was found to be significantly higher in the fracture group with an odds ratio of 17. Left sided surgery was also significantly higher in the periprosthetic fracture group.
Conclusion: Periprosthetic fractures are 17 times more likely to occur in a knee with anterior femoral notching. Preoperative factors like coronal alignment and poor preoperative range of motion do not seem to increase the risk of periprosthetic fractures after TKA.
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